Outstanding Science | Primary Science Resources for the National Curriculum

Primary Science Resources for the National Curriculum

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KS2 - Year 4 Animals, including humans

Learning objective

I can identify and locate the main organs of the human digestive system.

Children learn about the role of the human digestive system. They learn about the functions of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Children cut out pictures of the individual organs and paste them in place to complete a diagram, which they then label.

  • 4b1: describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
The process of absorbing nutrients from food is called digestion.
The major parts of the human digestive system include the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine (colon).
Year 4 Animals, including humans | Outstanding Science

The human digestive system Worksheet

Outstanding Science Year 4 | Animals, including humans | OS4B002

Learning objective

I can explain how the human digestive system works.

Children learn about the functions of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. They use this information to complete an explanation text with accompanying diagram by either cutting and pasting text or writing their own explanation.

  • 4b1: describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
Food is chewed in the mouth and mixed with saliva to form a bolus.
The oesophagus pushes the bolus towards the stomach using peristalsis.
The stomach contains strong acids to break down the bolus into chyme and also kill harmful microorganisms.
The small intestine is where most nutrients are absorbed.
The large intestine is where water is reclaimed.
Undigested material is expelled as faeces.
Year 4 Animals, including humans | Outstanding Science

Types of teeth Worksheet

Outstanding Science Year 4 | Animals, including humans | OS4B003

Learning objective

I can identify the different types of human teeth and explain their functions.

Children learn that humans have 2 sets of teeth, and that teeth can be classified into different groups. They learn about the number, location and function of the incisors, canines and molars. They create a colour-coded diagram explaining the role of each type of tooth.

  • 4b2: identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
Teeth are part of our digestive system and also help us to communicate.
Humans usually have 20 deciduous or milk teeth.Humans usually have 32 permanent teeth.
The 8 incisors are sharp and flat to cut food.
The 4 canine teeth are pointed and rip food.
Molars and premolars are bumpy and grind food.
Children have 8 molars and premolars, while adults have 20.
Year 4 Animals, including humans | Outstanding Science

Tooth structure Worksheet

Outstanding Science Year 4 | Animals, including humans | OS4B004

Learning objective

I can describe the structure of a tooth.

Children learn that teeth are made up of different materials (enamel, dentine, pulp) and are embedded in the gums and skull/jawbone. Children create their own labelled diagram showing these different parts and their functions, by cutting and pasting or writing their own descriptions.

  • 4b2: identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
The crown is the visible part of the tooth, and the root is the part hidden by the gum.
Teeth are coated by enamel which is the hardest material in our bodies.
Dentine is the hard material beneath the enamel.
The pulp of the tooth contains blood vessels and nerves.
Teeth are securely attached to the gum and bone.
Year 4 Animals, including humans | Outstanding Science

Looking after our teeth Worksheet

Outstanding Science Year 4 | Animals, including humans | OS4B005

Learning objective

I can explain how we can look after our teeth.

Children learn about the stages of tooth decay and how it can be caused. They learn how tooth decay can be prevented and treated. Children use a writing frame to complete an interview text, imagining themselves in the role of a dentist and explaining how we can look after our teeth.

  • 4b2: identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
Tooth decay is caused by microorganisms on the tooth surface consuming sugars in food and excreting acid, which can dissolve the tooth over time.
Decay can cause pain called toothache.
Tooth decay can be prevented by brushing teeth twice a day, using mouthwash, and avoiding sugary foods.
Severe tooth decay is incurable and may be treated by a dentist with a filling or extraction.
We should visit a dentist every 6 months.
Year 4 Animals, including humans | Outstanding Science

Food chains Worksheet

Outstanding Science Year 4 | Animals, including humans | OS4B007

Learning objective

I can create a food chain and explain what it shows.

Children lean what a food chain is and that the arrow shows energy flow within an ecosystem. Children use the pictures provided to create food chains with 2 and 3 organisms. They identify each organism using a word bank and whether they are a predator, prey, consumer or producer.

  • 4b3: construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey.
All organisms need food to survive.
Plants are producers, and create their own food using sunlight via photosynthesis.
Animals are consumers and must eat other organisms.
A predator is an animal which hunts, kills and eats other animals, called prey animals.
An ecosystem is a group of organisms in one place which depend on each other to survive.
A food chain shows how food energy moves through an ecosystem.
The arrows in a food chain mean 'is eaten by', not 'eats'.
Year 4 Animals, including humans | Outstanding Science

Food webs Worksheet

Outstanding Science Year 4 | Animals, including humans | OS4B008

Learning objective

I can create a food web and explain what it shows.

Children learn that a food web is a way of showing the energy flow in an ecosystem in a more complex way. They create a food web containing 8 different organisms. They identify and label each organism as a consumer, producer, predator, prey, and apex predator. They add their own arrows to show energy flow through the food web.

  • 4b3: construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey.
A food web can show more complex food relationships than a food chain.
An apex predator, or top-level predator, has no natural predators of its own.
Year 4 Animals, including humans | Outstanding Science